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Computer Games, Multimedia and Allied Technology (CGAT 2009)

Academic Conferences - Computer Games, Multimedia and Allied Technology (CGAT 2009)
Academic Conferences

By : Global Science & Technology Forum

Date : 2009

Location : Singapore / Singapore

PDF 350p
Description :

The conference strived to shed light on the inherent sociological and design differences between the East and the West while exploring the challenges faced by the Asian Gaming industry.

Keywords :

Turn-based Strategy (TBS) games,, Artificial Intelligence, Ghost AI, Imitation Based Learning, Dynamic Scripting, crowd animation, intelligent agent, cellular automata, Behavior Authoring, Personality, Believable Characters, Authoring Environments, Smallest Turning Radius Square (STRS), Motion Plan Matrix (MPM), Rapidly Exploring Random Trees (RRT), computer games conference proceedings

Keywords inside documents :

games ,computer ,player ,figure ,students ,motion ,learning ,character ,story ,based ,control ,system ,players ,technology ,model ,agent ,alice ,action ,environment ,texture

Product/ documentation details
Cheshire: Towards an Alice Based Game Development Tool

Company Description : This paper presents on-going research that aims to modify the open source 3D programming environment Alice in order to adapt it for use as a development tool for teaching game programming. The advantages and disadvantages of the current version of Alice for game development are described, along with an account of experiences using Alice for game development in the classroom. We set forth the changes that we plan to make to Alice and the challenges that we are facing.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Karen Villaverde & Inna Pivkina & Clint Jeffery

PDF 8p

Languages : English

Proceedings from Computer Games, Multimedia and Allied Technology (CGAT 2009) conference.

 

The evidently expanding Asian Gaming industry defines the need for the International Conference on Computer Games, Multimedia and Allied Technology in Singapore. The conference provided a platform for the international gaming community experts to discuss and deliberate with their Eastern counterparts on the state-of-the-art, new research results, perspectives of future developments, and innovative applications relevant to games development and related areas. The conference strived to shed light on the inherent sociological and design differences between the East and the West while exploring the challenges faced by the Asian Gaming industry.

 

 

 

Abstracts of papers included in the Computer Games, Multimedia and Allied Technology (CGAT 2009) conference prodeedings.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Towards an Evenly Match Opponent AI in Turn-based Strategy Games

Kittisak Potisartra  & Vishnu Kotrajaras from Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Payathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand

 

Research in turn-based strategy (TBS) games mostly involves classic games, such as Chess, and how such games could be beaten by a computer controlled artificial  intelligence. Guaranteeing that opponents will be beaten, however, is not the focus of commercial Turn-based Strategy games. For commercial games, if human players do not win, they quit the game. This can result in horrific future sales. Therefore, keeping players engage in the game is much more important. This paper presents an artificial player that learns to adjust its skills to match a player it is playing against. A Final Fantasy Tactics-like game is used in our experiment. We introduce evaluation functions for calculating the score from each unit's action. By evaluating a human player's score, our artificial player can estimate his skill and play at the same level throughout the game.

 

 

 

  1. Real-Time Imitation Based Learning for Commercial Fighting Games

Sarayut Lueangrueangroj & Vishnu Kotrajaras, Department of Computer Engineering

Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Payathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

 

Ghost AI is an Artificial Intelligence (AI) for fighting games which is capable of observing and imitating any player’s style of play. By using Ghost AI, a player can play the game as if playing against another player. Although Ghost AI can simulate a human player, current research only applies it offline. Therefore, a human player can easily learn to beat Ghost AI during a match. We propose a methodology that allows Ghost AI to learn in real-time. The real-time data is also used to vary the frequency of each imitated action, so that the action can only be executed in situations which favor the AI. Our experimental result shows that the enhanced AI appears more human-like and more intelligent than the unmodified Ghost AI and provides a more satisfying experience for human players.

 

 

 

  1. Cellular Flocking: Improving the performance of Agent Based Crowds

Kitikun Jongsarikit & Vishnu Kotrajaras, Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Payathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

 

Commercial animation software utilizes its crowd feature based on agent technologies. Using an intelligent agent for one character allows animators to easily modify a specific character’s behavior in detail, while most other characters can still use the same behavioral template. An agent based crowd, however, suffers from poor performance because a CPU needs to calculate each and every agent’s decision. This paper presents an approach for reducing the CPU load. By giving agents in the same map cell a shared brain, a group decision can be made using flocking algorithm at cellular automata level. This reduces the calculations significantly. Maintaining the distance among agents and computing agents’ direction are made into group decisions, while collision avoidance remains individuals. Our results show that the proposed technique not only reduces the calculations, it also maintains satisfactory individual-like movement for each agent.

 

 

 

  1. Creating Behavior Authoring Environment for Everyday Users

Manish Mehta & Tina Lacey & Iulian Wande Radu & Abhishek Jain & Ashwin Ram, Cognitive Computing Lab, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.

 

The design of interactive experiences is increasingly important in our society. Examples include interactive media, computer games, and interactive portals. There is increasing interest in modes of interaction with virtual characters, as they represent a natural way for humans to interact. Creating such characters is a complex task, requiring both creative skills (to design personalities, emotions, gestures, behaviors) and programming skills (to code these in a scripting or programming language).

There is little understanding of how the behavior authoring process can be simplified with easy-to-use authoring environments that can support the cognitive needs of everyday users and help them at every step to easily carry out this creative task. Our research focuses on behavior authoring environments that not only make it easy for novices/everyday users to create characters but also provide them scaffolding in designing these interactive experiences. In this paper we present results from a user study with a paper prototype of an authoring environment that is aimed to allow everyday users to create virtual characters. The study aims at determining whether typical computer users are able to create character personalities in specific scenarios and think about character’s mental states, and if so, then what kinds of user interfaces would be suitable for this authoring environment.

 

 

 

  1. Path-Finding with Motion Constraints in Real Time Strategies

Jeremiah J. Shepherd & Dr. Jijun Tang & Dr. Jason O’Kane, University of South Carolina, 315 Main St., Columbia, SC 29208, USA.

 

Path-finding is commonly used in video games, and is a critical feature in real time strategies. This genre uses path-finding to move an agent such as a soldier or a vehicle from one place to another, but currently these paths are unrealistic for agents that possess motion constraints. For example, in these games when a car-like vehicle moves from one place to another it will follow a jagged path, which overlooks motion constraints that determine how the vehicle realistically moves. Using motion constraints in agent path-finding has been avoided in video games, since these constraints make this task difficult and would slow down game play. In this paper we present an algorithm in which paths with motion constraints can be determined quickly in real time strategies. The method uses a data structure containing precalculated paths found by rapidly exploring random trees (RRT). Our experimental results support our claim that this method could be implemented in real time strategies.

 

 

 

  1. Design and Implementation of Intelligent Physics System

Taehyun Kim & Dongil Shin & Dongkyoo Shin from Sejong University, Seoul, Korea, Departement of computer science.

 

This paper presents the architecture for an intelligent physics engine. An intelligent physics engine is a system that can be used to produce realistic physical effecfts in real time. The result of an analysis of its ability to automatically select proper physics effects in a general game environment is also presented, along with a method of maximazing the excitement in a game with a minimum amount of calculation. A technique is proposed for intelligently ambodying the user’s expertise , and then evaluated by experiments with a racing car game. The study shows taht the intelligent physics engine should support an automatic acceleration mode controlled by the racing environment, collision detection model, and deceleration function by gravity.

 

 

 

  1. Automatically Adjusting Player Models for Given Stories in Role-Playing Games

Natham Thammanichanon & Vishnu Kotrajaras from Department of Computer Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, ayathai Rd., Patumwan Bangkok, Thailand.

 

Different kinds of players favor different game stories. Player Archetype Change Management (PACM) system is a drama management system which changes the story of role playing games according to a player model monitored during gameplay. Authors give each of his stories a matching player model. While a player plays the game, PACM selects the story that most matches current player model. However, players may not agree with a model defined for a story by its author. Players’ opinions should be used to adjust the player model associated with each story. In this paper, we present the technique for adjusting the player model of each story in PACM using observed data from players. This provides the system with a more reliable player model for future playing sessions.

 

 

 

  1. Omni-directional Stereoscopic Fisheye Images for Immersive Hemispherical Dome Environments

Paul Bourke, WASP, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, West Australia.

 

Virtual reality and gaming within a hemispherical dome provides an enhanced sense of immersion due to the engagement of the viewers peripheral vision. This sense of immersion would be enhanced further if depth perception was provided by engaging the viewers stereopsis capability. While this is well understood for flat displays, it is somewhat more challenging for a hemispherical display. In the following I discuss and derive the optical requirements for stereoscopic projection into hemispherical domes, this is applicable to both large scale domes (such as planetariums) and smaller personal domes. It is the development of the later smaller domes, referred to as the iDome, that employ a new lower cost projection system [1] that has been the motivation for this work. Primarily the discussion focuses on how to create optimal omni-directional stereoscopic fisheye pairs, that is, stereoscopic projections that are largely independent of the view direction (do not require head tracking) and the number of viewers.

 

 

 

  1. Raising Heart Rate with Dance Pad Based Computer Games

Martin Masek, Philip Hingston, Matthew Carrigy, and Liam Collins, School of Computer and Information Science, Edith Cowan University,Perth, Western Australia & Ken Nosaka, School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Western Australia.

 

Floor-positioned computer game controllers that require movement of large muscles are well known, most commonly in the form used in the rhythm-based game Dance Dance Revolution. Studies of the health benefits of such devices are often reported in the context of using the controller to play a particular game. In this paper we take a different approach, analyzing the controller as an exercise device in its own right, and using the findings to implement an appropriate game prototype. Trials show that the game increases the heart rate of the players to the level recommended for health and physical fitness.

 

 

 

  1. 3D Visualization and Animation of Crowd Simulation Using a Game Engine

Kabilen SORNUM, Yuanxi LIANG, Wentong CAI, Malcolm Yoke Hean LOW and Suiping ZHOU

School of Computer Engineering

Nanyang Technological University

Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798

 

Crowd simulation is an essential component of military training and operations. In this paper, we present an approach for generating 3D visualizations and animations from simulation results in the area of agent-based crowd simulation for military operations. The main contribution is to create a simulation bridge between a federated agent-based crowd simulation architecture and a game engine to drive the visualization and animation of virtual crowd in a 3-dimentional space. In our simulation bridge framework, we present a method for data acquisition to create the virtual environment. An interfacing methodology is introduced between the 3D virtual environment maps and the federated

agent-based crowd simulator. Our method comprises of converting the 3D maps to multi-level 2D maps to feed the 2D agent-based crowd simulator’s virtual world representation. A tool was implemented for defining objects in the virtual environment based on 2D maps and a color coder scheme. Our bridge framework makes use of a game engine as the visualization medium. The 3D virtual environment maps are reconstructed within the game engine and human avatars are created to simulate the agents. Motion, expression and behavioral animations are attached to each virtual agent. At run-time, data is fed from the 2D crowd simulator to our framework via an event-driven file buffer. Virtual agents are created at run-time based on the social aspects of the crowd composition. Behavioral animation is triggered on each agent based on the commands represented in the simulation results. Our framework also provides visualization of emergency situations and makes use of particle dynamics to generate more realistic visuals of disaster situations and human crowd behavior in an emergency situation.

 

 

 

  1. Heuristic-Based Learning in Abstraction Moving Target Search

Peter K. K. Loh & Rahul Bhasker from School of Computer Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore & Edmond C. Prakash, Department of Computing and Mathematics, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester.

 

Abstraction Moving Target Search (MTS) was shown to exhibit competitive performance against other existing MTS algorithms even with large problem spaces [6]. However, the original design of the Abstraction MTS algorithm does not incorporate learning. Hence, its behaviour is deterministic and its performance is constant regardless of the number of times the simulation is repeated over the same problem space. In this paper, we investigate the incorporation of heuristic-based learning into Abstraction MTS to enhance its adaptiveness. In our new algorithm, Heuristic Abstraction MTS, we attempt to minimize the computational as well as information overheads that may be introduced when incorporating heuristic-based learning into the design. We conduct performance simulations with an agent and a moving target within randomly generated mazes of increasing sizes and reveal that the Heuristic Abstraction MTS outperforms the original Abstraction MTS.

 

 

 

  1. iDome: Immersive gaming with the Unity3D game engine

Paul Bourke, WASP, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, West Australia.

 

In many games, notably first person shooters, the player inhabits a 3D virtual world similar to the user experience in a virtual reality application or training simulator. It is generally accepted that in such environments there is a heightened sense of immersion and engagement [1] if the player is surrounded by the virtual imagery, that is, the virtual world occupies their entire visual field. However traditional realtime graphics APIs only support parallel and perspective projections, whereas for immersive displays different projections are required. In the following I will discuss a particular immersive display environment based upon a hemispherical dome and present a method of creating the correct projections using the Unity game engine [2]. Design decisions will be presented along with a discussion of the performance and issues with the approach taken. The techniques discussed are general and appropriate to other game engines for which source code is available or, as in the case of Unity, the scripting language is powerful enough to implement the required mapping and geometry correction.

 

 

 

  1. Character Animation: Learning From Feature Film Techniques

Melanie Beisswenger, Nanyang Technological University, School of Art, Design and Media, 81 Nanyang Drive, Singapore, 637458.

 

With ever increasing visual quality and details in computer games, expectations for character animation are also evolving. Simple movement cycles alone are not enough anymore to satisfy the gamers, and the increasing emphasis on storytelling in games demands better acted, crafted and more sophisticated animation of its characters. Good character animation is founded on 2 pillars. Firstly, body mechanics, which grounds the character in the imaginary games world’s physics and gives believability in the bodily presence therein. Secondly, character acting and character personality, which are important for the story and the user’s emotional attachment and empathy with the characters. Character design is another very important factor in the expression of character personality and acting. Design decisions such as hyperrealism or stylization for characters and environments influence the animation style and complexity. These choices in addition to the relationship between design and movement will be set in context with the concept of the uncanny valley. Concepts and techniques used in the creation of feature film quality animation will be discussed. The principles of animation will be related to body mechanics and acting, and how they are adapted in computer animation.

 

 

 

  1. Surface Normal Data Compression Using XOR-based Prediction

Kyoungsoo Son, Daiyong Kim, Eun-Young Chang and Euee S. Jang, Digital Media Lab., Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul, Korea.

 

The well-known 3D mesh compression standards such as MPEG-4 3DMC provided a good

compression gain of 3D mesh model. The standard compression technologies are highly efficient in compressing connectivity and geometry data. For other attributes like surface normals, the compression efficiency of the standard compression technologies is not as high as connectivity and geometry. This is because they do not exploit the characteristics of the individual attributes for further compression. Especially, surface normals are very hard to compress because it is hard to design an efficient prediction of the current normal from the previous (or neighboring) surface normals. In this paper, we proposed an efficient surface normal data compression method based on XOR operation. We found that the output values of XOR operation between the current and previous surface normals are highly correlated. And entropy coding of the output values of XOR operation yields the better compression gain than the existing methods. Experimental results showed that a compression gain between 19 to 38 percent is achieved using the proposed method.

 

 

 

  1. New Texture Coordinate Representation Exploiting Texture Patch Formation

Ming-Xiao Chen & Euee S. Jang from Digital Media Lab, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-Dong, SungDong-gu, Seoul, Korea & Seung-Wook Lee, ETRI (Electronics and, Telecommunication Research Institute), Contents Research Division, 138 Gajeon-dong, Yuseonggu, Daejeon, Korea.

 

In order to improve the realization and rendering efficiency of a 3D mesh model, patch-base textures are widely used in 3D applications. However, the huge description size of texture patches - which is utilized for mapping texture patches onto 3D mesh - accounts for a substantial amount of storage and transmission resources. The wellknown 3D mesh compression algorithms perform efficiently on connectivity and geometry data. In the mean time, less attention was given to texture coordinate compression. In this paper, we proposed an efficient representation method that can adaptively describe two common texture patch types: regular and non-regular patches. For textures with nonregular patch formation, we used a binary tree-like method in describing the connectivity between patches. For textures with regular patches, we proposed a new representation method by exploiting the regularity of texture patch shapes to describe a patch with one texture coordinate and a patch type (e.g., shape and orientation), not with three texture coordinates in the conventional representation. The proposed method is more compact than the conventional representation method (e.g., VRML), which leaves room for further compression of texture coordinate information. The experimental results showed that our algorithm produced a data reduction of 10 to 75 percent compared to the conventional representation method.

 

 

 

  1. Efficient Connection Graph Generation for Waypoints  in Virtual Environments

Nicholas Mario Wardhana & Henry Johan & Peter Kok Keong Loh & Hock Soon Seah from Nanyang technolocal  University, school of computer engineering, Singapore & Darren Wee Sze Ong Defence  Science & technology agency, Directorate of research & development.

 

In virtual environments, such as First Person Shooter (FPS), Role Playing Game (RPG) and Real-Time Strategy (RTS) computer games, pathfinding is used to determine a character’s path from a starting position to a goal position. It is common in this process to use waypoint representations instead of the raw map to reduce the computational and storage costs. Waypoints are usually created and connected manually by the game designer. Several research approaches to generate map representation in games exist but most of them focus on roadmap [10]. Visibility graph is commonly used to connect waypoints automatically, such as in [14]. However, because there are many paths originating from a waypoint, a pathfinding process between two waypoints will be time-consuming. In this paper, we address these issues by generating waypoints based on the map geometry and also proposing a technique to establish a more efficient connection graph with less number of connections to reduce the computational cost and storage overheads.

 

 

 

  1. Cheshire: Towards an Alice Based Game Development Tool

Karen Villaverde & Inna Pivkina from New Mexico State University, Computer Science Department, Las Cruces, NM, USA & Clint Jeffery, University of Idaho, Computer Science Department, Moscow, ID, USA.

 

This paper presents on-going research that aims to modify the open source 3D programming environment Alice in order to adapt it for use as a development tool for teaching game programming. The advantages and disadvantages of the current version of Alice for game development are described, along with an account of experiences using Alice for game development in the classroom. We set forth the changes that we plan to make to Alice and the challenges that we are facing.

 

 

 

  1. Real-time Ship Motion Prediction System

Damitha Sandaruwan & Nihal Kodikara & Chamath Keppitiyagama from University of Colombo School of Computing, 35 ,Reid Avenue ,Colombo 7 & Rexy Rosa, Department of Physics, University of Colombo, Colombo 03.

 

In this paper we present a real-time ship motion prediction system for simulating ship motion in a virtual environment. This system simulates ship motions in six degrees of freedom, pitch, heave, roll, surge, sway, and yaw. This system is simple and responds in real-time to interactions and it is based on a mathematical ship model. The mathematical model is derived from the famous linear first order Nomoto ship steering equation, linear sway equation, Newton’s laws, fluid dynamics and other basic physics. We use multivariable functions to model the ocean surface with superposition of sinusoid functions and the ship model requires fewer amounts of ship data and the mathematical ship model can be used with different types of existing ships.

 

 

 

  1. Real-time Character Motion Control Using Data Gloves

Nik Isrozaidi Nik Ismail, Katsuya Ishiguro and Masaki Oshita, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka, 820-8502 Japan.

 

For computer games, communications using avatars, and real-time animation systems, users want to move a character freely in a virtual world. However, the flexibility of the current motion control interface is very limited because currently character motion is simply controlled with pre-defined motion data. In this paper, we present a motion control method that uses two data gloves as an input device, making a virtual character perform various motions. Each part of the character’s body is controlled using input from data gloves. For example, a user can control the character’s left arm and left leg using their left hand. However, there are limited degrees of freedom using data gloves to control all the character’s body parts directly. Moreover, it is difficult for users to perform complex motions such as stepping or jumping because multiple body parts have to be controlled at the same time. In order to solve these problems, we introduce three novel ideas. First, we change the mapping between the user’s hand and the character’s body parts dynamically. For example, when the both hands are moving in the same direction, they are used to control the pelvis instead of arms or legs. Then, we introduce a manual

switch between arms and legs. A hand is used for controlling the arms or the legs by switching the mode manually with a finger. Second, we use mechanisms of real puppets to control multiple body parts synchronously. Third, we combine the motion data based control with the position based control. When it is needed, a motion is selected from the pre-defined motion data, and is then executed. We use this approach for locomotive motion such as rightward step, leftward step, backward  step, and jump. A motion is selected when the character’s waist is moved more than certain distance in a given direction. Using this approach, complex motions can be performed easily.

 

 

  1. The Use of Narrative in the Prototyping of Serious Games for Criminal Investigation

Daniel Andrews & Chris Baber, The University of Birmingham, Electronic, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom).

 

In this Paper we explore the potential use of narrative as a tool for delivering media that can support learning of work-related skills and information in a meaningful context. It is argued that the use of interactive videogames with narrative structures can provide a versatile platform through which a range of different perspectives, and therefore training, can be experienced. The example of crime scene investigation is used to demonstrate the ways in which narrative structures can benefit the player/trainee by allowing them to participate from various perspectives, such as criminal and investigator, within a single context. Some potential techniques are discussed which may help realise this in the future, which initially involve the development of small-scale prototypes in order to assess the training potential of a game’s design.

 

 

  1. Automatic Level Difficulty Adjustment in Platform Games Using Genetic Algorithm Based Methodology

Nirach Watcharasatharpornpong & Vishnu Kotrajaras from Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Payathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

 

In platform games, enemy behavior is not complicated. Therefore, challenges in such games come from the right mixture between enemies and environments of each level. Platform games require manual testing for tuning the game balance for mass audience. This is very time consuming. In addition, the difficulty of each level obtained is not guaranteed to suit individuals. Very few researches tackle how balanced levels can be generated automatically for individuals. This paper proposes a new methodology for using artificial intelligence to adjust games difficulty to suit players by automatically generating levels in platform games. The method is inspired by genetic algorithm. It is much easier to implement compared to an existing reinforcement learning based method, while still maintains similar gameplay quality. The new methodology also consumes less memory.

 

 

 

  1. SHASPA – INTELLIGENT SHARED SPACES BUILDING WORLDS WITHOUT BOUNDARIES

David John Wortley, Serious Games Institute, Unit6 Innovation Village, Cheetah Road, Coventry, CV1 2TL UK & Oliver Goh SHASPA, Humrigenflurstrasse 6, 8704 Herrliberg, Switzerland.

 

Technology developments in electronic games, virtual worlds and social network applications are increasingly being applied to serious social and economic issues and are breaking down the barriers between physical and virtual environments SHASPA is an innovative platform and set of services that a blend of emerging technologies such as wireless sensors, social networks, virtual worlds and electronic games can plug into to create applications which integrate, visualise, monitor and manage the physical and virtual environment.

Today’s technologies in 3D immersive environments enable us to better visualise and understand the world around us and the SHASPA platform provides creative developers working on the integration of physical and virtual worlds to develop and share new applications which foster better energy management, greater understanding of physical processes and the creation of intelligent shared spaces capable of delivering high value services to individuals working in those spaces.

This paper describes the SHASPA platform and the range of applications being developed which bring the power of games, virtual worlds and social networks to the physical environment.

 

 

 

  1. Operative Series (OpS): a platform independent carrier mechanism for game accessibility and AI

Thomas Westin & Stig Nordeson from Stockholm University / KTH, Forum 100, 16440 Kista, Sweden.

 

The concept of Operative Series (OpS) was developed as a carrier mechanism for game accessibility and AI in our award-winning 3D game Terraformers. The problem we are investigating is the possibility to isolate and identify abstract operative patterns from a given algorithmic setting, embedded with fixed control-flow structures and hard wired call-maps. From the viewpoint of a computer game scenario, you need just in time solutions for context-based situations, which need to be generated on the fly. Further, it needs to be distributed in a way that makes decision process logic available to a set of various game objects. This is often solved with complex AI frameworks where truly platform independent scheduling and serialization is difficult to achieve.

The result is a code library for OpS, which has proven to work in a commercial 3D game, comprising a sequencer mechanism and a modular data structure. By virtue of a modular data form, the OpS makes of procedural logic an entity, which can be communicated across address space boundaries.

This makes OpS the perfect vehicle for carrying AI solutions and offer the means to form program constructs amenable to serialization and scheduling.

The conclusion is that the OpS provides a solution to the problem with an easy to implement approach, which is platform independent, and is also well suited to be used in conjunction with Object Oriented Programming (OOP).

 

 

 

  1. Case Study: an Artist’s Residency within a Singaporean Gaming Company

Asst. Prof. Martin Constable, Division of Animation, School of Art Design and Media, Nanyang Technological University

 

Ksatria Gameworks are a Singaporean game developer whose first project is based on the classic game book series ‘Lone Wolf’ by Joe Dever. From 22nd Dec 2006 to 30th April 2008 the artist Jack Youngblood was their artist in residence. Jack Youngblood is a digital painter with an interest in popular culture and digital technologies.

The Digital Print ‘Hope is the Kingmaker’ (fig. 1) was one of the key pieces in the resultant body of work. It was a complex and large (1m X 2m) composite that drew heavily on a broad range of material sourced from many places. It was the artist’s intention to produce a piece of work that was both thematically and visually excessive. The piece referenced both high and low cultural imagery and themes such as vampires, zombies, spacemen, life, death and consciousness.

This paper shall outline these influences and shall place them within the context of the gaming theme. ‘Hope is the Kingmaker’ shall also be examined in terms of the technical specifics of its manufacture and the history of its development.

 

 

 

  1. Driver Behaviour Analysis in a Simulated Environment

Wimal Perera & Prasad Wimalaratne, University of Colombo School of Computing, No.35, Reid Avenue, Colombo-07,Sri Lanka.

 

Building a navigation system within a 3-dimensional virtual computer world is challenging. Further, building our navigable virtual world corresponding to real world facts (such as a map or a landscape of a given area) magnifies this challenge. This research investigates on possibilities of modeling a 3D navigable world corresponding to real world facts via mathematical constructs derived using the provided information of a given area. Thereafter, this realism augmented 3D navigation system is transformed into a 3D virtual driving simulator.

Our driving simulator is used as a tool for measuring driver behaviour under different types of varied conditions. The final output of this simulator after a single driving session is a sample data set indicating predefined metrics; those can be used to state observations for a typical human factors experiment. Hence the observations after a driving session in a simulated environment are used to derive useful inferences with respect to real driving. The metrics include; number of wall collisions, number of traffic cone collisions, time taken per driving session and speed detected during different times (can be used to obtain a speed graph later). The sample human factors experiment tested on our driving simulator is about inferring the relationship between driver behaviour vs. consumption of alcohol, which is simplified to driver behaviour vs. drowsiness for the sake of demonstration.

 

 

 

  1. Sentiment Recognition by Rule Extraction from Support Vector Machines

Joachim Diederich & Denise Dillon, James Cook University, 600 Upper Thomson Rd., Singapore 574421, Singapore.

 

Affective computation allows machines to express and recognize emotions, a core component of computer games. A natural way to express emotion is language, through text and speech; computational methods that accurately recognize emotion in text and speech are therefore important. Machine learning techniques such as support vector machines (SVMs) have been used successfully for topic detection in documents and speech as well as for the identification of authors/speakers. SVMs have also been used for emotion detection in written and spoken communication, although with mixed success. An impediment to emotion extraction by use of support vector machines is that, after learning, it is not quite clear what has been learned. For instance, a gamer may acoustically respond to a character with fear and the SVMs that observe user behaviour confuse the sentiment (fear) with the character (e.g. an in-game persona). Successful emotion identification by support vector machines requires methods that ensure the recognition of sentiments without any confusion with certain topics or characters. This paper provides an introduction to affective computation and rule extraction from support vector machines, a set of techniques used for emotion recognition in text.

 

 

 

  1. Virtual Hair Simulation: A Performance Analysis Based on Geometric Representations

Manjusri Wickramasinghe & Prasad Wimalaratne, University of Colombo School of Computing, No.35, Reid Avenue, Colombo-07, Sri Lanka.

 

Hair modeling in its naturalistic beauty and inter-activeness is a fundamental part of virtual humans in computer graphics. Hair simulation can be thought of as three separate problems which is a modeling problem, an animation problem and a rendering problem. Because of the difficult and often unresolved problems which arise in these areas, broad ranges of novel approaches are used to counter the simulation problem. Most of these methods focuses on the algorithmic complexity and keeps aside the geometric complexity by considering it as a constant. A single hair strand can have vivid geometric representations ranging from two dimensional quad strips to complex three dimensional structures. To analyze the effect of each geometric representation on the overall simulation, a performance analysis was carried out using the mass spring and damper model and Euler dynamics. Out of the three geometric representations used to represent a single strand of hair it was eminent that certain geometric primitives such as spheres affect the overall performance considerably when compared to constructs such as quad strips or cylinders. The above mentioned performance analysis that we present emphasizes the importance of geometric complexity.

 

 

 

  1. The Colour Variables of Visual Unrealisms in Computer Games

Philip McClenaghan & Clive Fencott & Paul van Schaik from University of Teesside,Middlesbrough, United Kingdom.

 

Visual unrealisms (VUs) are devices employed to overcome the limitations imposed by the rules of realism that govern a particular representation of a reality when attempting to visualise abstract concepts such as health. VUs are reliant on deliberate distortion to the representational norms of the reality and in order to provide a language with which to discuss the visual characteristics of visual unrealisms a classification of the variables of visual unrealisms has been developed. This resulted in the proposition that visual representations, and thus visual unrealisms, can be viewed as the outcome of the relationship between the choice of and syntagmatic organisation of colour. This enables not only the identification of the constituent parts of a visual representation of a game world but also the articulation of the relative levels of distortion applied and the methods of manipulation. It is proposed that this will be of benefit in the effective design and analysis of computer games.

 

 

 

  1. Benefiting from Computer Games in Learning Science from Teachers’ Perspective: Is It Possible?

Rubijesmin Abdul Latif & Judithe Sheard from Caulfield School of IT, Monash University, Caulfield East, 3145 Victoria Australia.

 

Computer games are very popular among children, teenager as well as adults and could be easily accessed anytime and anywhere with the widespread availability of computer in Malaysia. We believe with the exposure and popularity, computer games could be exploited as another medium for teaching and learning in Malaysian schools. Therefore, we intended to investigate the possibilities of exploring the idea of adapting computer games specifically for Science teaching and learning in class. For that matter, we need to understand whether computer games could be incorporated as another pedagogy instrument in class and how could teachers benefit from computer games. 9 computer games were evaluated by 341 public school students and 24 teachers across Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia and the results showed that each individual computer games has its own pros and cons. The results from this study focused on identifying which and recognizing how each computer game was able to assist the teachers during the class session. Generally, teachers were positive with the idea of incorporating computer games as another pedagogy tool especially for Science.

 

 

 

  1. The Educational Value of Metaphorical FPS Games

Dr. John R. Rankin & Sandra Sampayo Vargas from La Trobe University, Head of the Games and Technology Laboratory, Bundoora 3086 VIC, Australia,.

 

The creation of Metaphorical FPS games and the testing of them have helped us to find the improvements required in the development of tools for low-end Educational Serious Games. In the Metaphorical FPS game we are using the same well-known and accepted basic game features from an FPS game as symbols and metaphors of things in a real teaching lesson and the rules of the game are changed to correspond with the real-world system of the learning concept. From the results of the surveys done on two Metaphorical FPS games we believe that it is essential to build the introductory module which will give the necessary instructions to the player to understand the game objectives, the facilities provided and the obstacles in the game. We also found it necessary to build the in-game tutor module which will provide help to the player and constant feedback of the actions that he is accomplishing while playing. Both modules can be constructed as tools required for the development of low-end Educational Serious Games. These and other improvements for constructing Metaphorical FPS games are in accordance with principles from Cognitive Load Theory.

 

 

 

  1. Video Games Design and Development: The challenges of relevance and delivery against an evolving professional landscape

Ken Fee, University of Abertay Dundee, Bell Street, Dundee, Scotland.

 

As the games industry itself has grown and matured into a global business, the demand for talented development staff has seen a corresponding proliferation of new higher education courses and programmes. Unfortunately, these have not met with universal acclaim from the industry. This sense of reservation reflects in part the harsh reality that academic courses are not required in order to work within the industry, nor are they even necessary to gain the knowledge or skills required to produce games themselves. It follows that in many cases this newfound academic support for the games industry does not stem from a professionally driven necessity, but rather from a perceived student recruitment opportunity. The consequences of this are manifest, demanding solutions and pedagogical models which do not necessarily conform to the traditional norm. However, the problem does not lie with Academia alone, but also with the expectations and inherent abilities of students applying to these courses. Just as the industry does not require qualifications of their potential employees, the students on these courses cannot rely on the conferment of the degree alone to prove their worth. In game development degrees it is the collaborative multidisciplinary learning opportunities, live project development experience and networking exposure throughout the entire duration of the course or programme that provide the educational value and advantage in higher education enrolment. In 2006, after some 25 published titles and roles in such franchises such as Lemmings, Grand Theft Auto, Medal of Honor, Harry Potter and Star Trek, I joined the University of Abertay Dundee as Programme Tutor in Game Design and Production Management. In this paper I will discuss the challenges that my team and I faced in translating genuine industrial practices into the Higher education pedagogical model, the solutions we derived, and the challenges that lie ahead.

 

 

 

  1. JeuxDeMots and PtiClic: games for vocabulary assessment and lexical acquisition

Lafourcade Mathieu, LIRMM-TAL, 161 rue ADA, F- 34392 Montpellier cedex 9 – France & Zampa Virginie, LIDILEM – Grenoble 3, BP 25, 38040 Grenoble cedex 9 - France.

 

In this Paper we describe two games JeuxDeMots and PtiClic which aims at collecting lexical relations between words. We describe the principle of theses games and present the quantitative and qualitative results on the lexical networks.

 

 

 

  1. A Study on Project Based Learning Approach for Motion Graphics Visualization

Nekhat Sultana binti Tarique Azam & Yuen, May Chan from Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University, Malaysi.

 

This study attempts to identify visualisation techniques used by First Year Film and Animation students to visualise motion graphics animation. It reports the pedagogy used in teaching the visualisation process of motion graphics animation. The curriculum has been designed using the project based learning approach, where the outcome of the project was explained to the students in the beginning of the trimester. Within a time period of eight weeks, students went through lectures, lab lessons, workshops and video showcases to prepare them for the project. Students were required to display their processes through 2 assignments and using the scrapbook in documenting their process of ideation through to the final visualization. This paper evaluates the Motion Graphics course, a course centered on project-based learning incorporating the development of students’ soft skills as well as technical or professional competences. The research aimed to identify to what extent ProjBL helped in achieving the identified learning outcomes and to identify potential areas for improvement for Motion graphics visualisation.

 

 

 

  1. Wissenheim Worlds – a Massively Multi-User Environment Focused on E-Action-Learning

Tobias Bäuerle & Alexander Weggerle & Peter Schulthess from University Ulm,James-Franck-Ring, 89069 Ulm, GER & Michael Sonnenfroh, Heinrich-Heine-University,  Universitätsstraße 1, 40225 Düsseldorf, GER.

 

The “Wissenheim1 Worlds” project provides an interactive virtual 3D world initially designed to host educational material for computer science students. All participants are represented as avatars and perceive a rich multimedia experience. This includes animated lecture material, interactive content, meeting opportunities, games and fun. The current aim of the project is to present the often very complex content of the computer science lecture in a playful, interactive and self-explanatory way. An important focus of the project is therefore to let the avatars interact with educational 3D objects (“eaction learning”). As a prototype for a virtual 3D e-action-learning environment “Wissenheim Worlds” demonstrates how to present highly-dynamic content for a multi-user community.

 

 

 

  1. Honesty in Meta-gaming

Paul Dempster, University of Nottingham, Ningbo, 199 Taikang East Road, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China, 315100.

 

Will my free-kick swerve down as much if I also try to swerve it to the side? Am I prohibited from moving into this different map area because of engine limitations, overly-linear story-telling, or simply because the developer ran out of time? What happens if I kill this NPC? Modern game players have adapted to play the game as designed, and the meta-game of exploring the game's rule system, with equal ease. For some games the meta-game is the primary attraction, yet very little effort is put into sharing its details with players. Even games without an obvious meta-component reveal one after some time in player hands. I propose that making meta-game components of a game visible can engage players, causing them to spend more time with the game, increasing its life-span and deepening their understanding of its tactics and control systems.

 

 

 

  1. Virtual Hair Attachment: A Novel Approach

Manjusri Wickramasinghe & Prasad Wimalaratne from University of Colombo School of Computing, No.35, Reid Avenue, Colombo-07, Sri Lanka.

 

The hair modeling problem consists of three major parts known as the hair generation, attachment and finer property handling. When we exclusively consider hair attachment techniques we can observe that most of the hair simulations’ naturalism can be adjusted by the attachment technique used. But most of the techniques available today lack the ability to perceive the natural phenomenon of hair attachment which to grow from inside. This paper proposes a novel approach to virtual hair attachment by using a more natural approach like making the hair strand originate from inside the human head. This technique can be regarded as a pioneer in hybrid hair shape modeling techniques as this addresses both the shape modeling and the attachment problem.

 

 

 

  1. Visual Authoring Tool for Creating Visual Novel Games

Kristian Wijaya & Tri A. Budiono, Binus Business School, Binus University, Jl. Hang Lekir I No 6 Jakarta 12120.

 

The paper proposes a visual authoring tool for a developing Visual Novel games. Visual Novels are games that work like reading a novel. Visual Novels are very popular in Japan, where they make up nearly 70% of PC games released. However, due to its heavy contents of erotic things and sex scenes, this type of games are less acceptable in other regions. Despite its popularity, not many tools or engines are available to help visual novel creators to easily develop these games.

The implemented prototype is developed using Java Swing. Basically, the program has two main components, the visual authoring interface and the compiler. The visual interface lets the users to specify the flow of the story and compose words, pictures, as well as sounds to tell stories. Having finished the composition, the users can compile it to a Java class simply by pressing a button, that can then run independently outside the authoring tool itself.

Unlike other Visual Novels authoring tools that require users to write a script to specify the novels, the proposed tool provides a graphical interface to compose the novels. This visual approach frees the users from learning the scripting which normally is a an obstacle for non-technical users. It also facilitates the settings of users' involvement level in the composed novel that allows the creator of this novels to adjust how much engagement of the users is expected in the finished novels. A simple test on the users shows that this visual authoring interface can help non-technical users to develop a visual novel relatively easily. Moreover, since it uses Java Swing , the tool is ensured to work crossplatform.

 

 

 

  1. Agent-Based Simulation for Infrastructure Protection and Emergency Evacuation Training

Shri Rai & Kevin Wong from School of Information Technology, Murdoch University, Australia.

 

Simulators have been used for some time to provide training to people in a number of occupations. Simulation systems enable what-if questions to be posed and the consequences of user actions to be studied in a cost-effective and safe manner. Simulations also enable detailed user behavior to be logged for later study to extract data that may be difficult to capture in real life. This paper describes the development of a multi-user simulation platform that enables certain emergency events to be simulated. All user behavior is logged for later analysis so that user behavior under certain stressful events can be studied. Software agents in the simulation system can be used to model crowds or agents with a particular intent. The system can be used to provide emergency evacuation training. The system can also be used to test the security of building designs to find out how the security of these buildings can be compromised.

 

 

 

  1. Deriving Displacement from a 3 axis Accelerometer

Mr. Andrew Blake & Dr. Graham Winstanley & Dr. William Wilkinson from University of Brighton, CMIS, Watts Building, Lewes Road, Brighton.

 

This paper describes a formal approach to derive displacement from a 3 axis accelerometer. It forms part of a larger research aspiration striving to afford computer users, including gamers, full physical immersion into 3D environments utilising affordable and practical motion sensor technologies. To derive displacement from the accelerometer a motion sensing device was built utilising a standard Windows PC compatible gamepad and software device driver. The accelerometer replaced the gamepad’s analogue joysticks and was mounted in a black box small enough to be held in the hand.

A software application was written that collected data, in real time, from the motion sensing device. A series of experiments were performed, the data captured and analysed. It was observed that specific motion characteristics correlated with oscillations in the data. A hypothesis was formed and the focus of this paper is on data analysis with a view to test the hypothesis.

 

 

 

  1. Skill-mirroring control systems

Paul Dempster, University of Nottingham, Ningbo, 199 Taikang East Road, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China.

 

Most current input systems for games rely on mechanistic iconographic based interactions such as an "attack" button, in hardware or software, which encompasses the whole sequence of preparation, timing, execution, and recovery from the action. The few systems which differ mostly involve hardware analogues of physical equipment and movements. These often capture the movement of the real action but not the primary skill required; capturing secondary skills are almost never even attempted. I propose a series of software-based approaches which capture primary and secondary skills required to mirror a player's character’s abilities in the player themselves. For example in the role-playing games, if the player has the skills a designer thinks a wizard or warrior would have, the player’s character will be better at that class. Comparisons with existing popular systems are made and the implications of this system for cheating, bots, leveling, class selection and experience levels are discussed.

 

 

 

  1. The Asian Mule in Cyberspace: Building Game Controllers from Locally Appropriate Materials

Thomas Tilley, Payap University, Department of Computer Information Systems  Chiang Mai 50300, Thailand.

 

Over the last twenty-five years small 100-125cc motorcycles have become the “mule of Asia” – a common mode of transportation for both passengers and goods. This paper describes a number of novel and distinctly Asian game input devices for playing a futuristic motorcycle computer game that takes the mule of Asia into cyberspace. The controllers are constructed from cheap, readily available, local materials and in addition to their functionality the design and choice of these materials is presented as a commentary on many aspects of life in modern South-East Asia.

 

 

 

  1. Realtime 3D in Game Engines: Rendering, Animation & Interaction

Edmond Prakash, Jonathan Rushworth, Baihua Li, James Miller, Mike Topsom, Philip Jones and Atif Waraich, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom.

 

In this paper we first describe some of the new and attractive features available in the id Tech 5 game engine and the EPIC Unreal Engine 3. There is an increasing demand for the simulation of large-scale "free-flow" environments in game development and in the virtual reality world. Currently most 3D environments are generated by using time consuming manually pre-scripting “room-to-room” approaches. We intend to address the problem using fractal modeling and automatic computer algorithms. In particular, we will investigate how fractal theory can be used to mathematically generate the multi-layer urban structure and hierarchy with regard to associated probability densities of various properties of the city. In the final part, we present heuristics employed for the design and development of an XNA based game.

 

 

 

  1. The Music and Emotion Driven Game Engine: Ideas and Games

Roberto Dillon, Ng Kian Bee and Simon Rozner, School of Interactive and Digital Media - Nanyang Polytechnic, 180 Ang Mo Kio Av.8, Singapore 569830.

 

In this paper we describe the ideas behind the Music and Emotion Driven Game Engine (M-EDGE), currently under development at the School of Interactive and Digital Media in Nanyang Polytechnic and fully supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation. The paper will explain a possible method for analyzing emotional content in music in real time and how it can successfully be applied to different game ideas to help defining a new interactive experience and music based gameplay in videogames.


 

Towards an Evenly Match Opponent AI in Turn-based Strategy Games

Company Description : Research in turn-based strategy (TBS) games mostly involves classic games, such as Chess, and how such games could be beaten by a computer controlled artificial intelligence. Guaranteeing that opponents will be beaten, however, is not the focus of commercial Turn-based Strategy games. For commercial games, if human players do not win, they quit the game. This can result in horrific future sales. Therefore, keeping players engage in the game is much more important. This paper presents an artificial player that learns to adjust its skills to match a player it is playing against. A Final Fantasy Tactics-like game is used in our experiment. We introduce evaluation functions for calculating the score from each unit's action. By evaluating a human player's score, our artificial player can estimate his skill and play at the same level throughout the game.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Kittisak Potisartra & Vishnu Kotrajaras

PDF 6p

Languages : English

Real-Time Imitation Based Learning for Commercial Fighting Games

Company Description : Ghost AI is an Artificial Intelligence (AI) for fighting games which is capable of observing and imitating any player’s style of play. By using Ghost AI, a player can play the game as if playing against another player. Although Ghost AI can simulate a human player, current research only applies it offline. Therefore, a human player can easily learn to beat Ghost AI during a match. We propose a methodology that allows Ghost AI to learn in real-time. The real-time data is also used to vary the frequency of each imitated action, so that the action can only be executed in situations which favor the AI. Our experimental result shows that the enhanced AI appears more human-like and more intelligent than the unmodified Ghost AI and provides a more satisfying experience for human players.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Sarayut Lueangrueangroj & Vishnu Kotrajaras

PDF 8p

Languages : English

Cellular Flocking: Improving the performance of Agent Based Crowds

Company Description : Commercial animation software utilizes its crowd feature based on agent technologies. Using an intelligent agent for one character allows animators to easily modify a specific character’s behavior in detail, while most other characters can still use the same behavioral template. An agent based crowd, however, suffers from poor performance because a CPU needs to calculate each and every agent’s decision. This paper presents an approach for reducing the CPU load. By giving agents in the same map cell a shared brain, a group decision can be made using flocking algorithm at cellular automata level. This reduces the calculations significantly. Maintaining the distance among agents and computing agents’ direction are made into group decisions, while collision avoidance remains individuals. Our results show that the proposed technique not only reduces the calculations, it also maintains satisfactory individual-like movement for each agent.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Kitikun Jongsarikit & Vishnu Kotrajaras

PDF 8p

Languages : English

Creating Behavior Authoring Environment for Everyday Users

Company Description : The design of interactive experiences is increasingly important in our society. Examples include interactive media, computer games, and interactive portals. There is increasing interest in modes of interaction with virtual characters, as they represent a natural way for humans to interact. Creating such characters is a complex task, requiring both creative skills (to design personalities, emotions, gestures, behaviors) and programming skills (to code these in a scripting or programming language). There is little understanding of how the behavior authoring process can be simplified with easy-to-use authoring environments that can support the cognitive needs of everyday users and help them at every step to easily carry out this creative task. Our research focuses on behavior authoring environments that not only make it easy for novices/everyday users to create characters but also provide them scaffolding in designing these interactive experiences. In this paper we present results from a user study with a paper prototype of an authoring environment that is aimed to allow everyday users to create virtual characters. The study aims at determining whether typical computer users are able to create character personalities in specific scenarios and think about character’s mental states, and if so, then what kinds of user interfaces would be suitable for this authoring environment.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Manish Mehta & Tina Lacey & Iulian Wande Radu & Abhishek Jain &

PDF 8p

Languages : English

Path-Finding with Motion Constraints in Real Time Strategies

Company Description : Path-finding is commonly used in video games, and is a critical feature in real time strategies. This genre uses path-finding to move an agent such as a soldier or a vehicle from one place to another, but currently these paths are unrealistic for agents that possess motion constraints. For example, in these games when a car-like vehicle moves from one place to another it will follow a jagged path, which overlooks motion constraints that determine how the vehicle realistically moves. Using motion constraints in agent path-finding has been avoided in video games, since these constraints make this task difficult and would slow down game play. In this paper we present an algorithm in which paths with motion constraints can be determined quickly in real time strategies. The method uses a data structure containing precalculated paths found by rapidly exploring random trees (RRT). Our experimental results support our claim that this method could be implemented in real time strategies.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Jeremiah J. Shepherd & Dr. Jijun Tang & Dr. Jason O’Kane

PDF 8p

Languages : English

Design and Implementation of Intelligent Physics System

Company Description : This paper presents the architecture for an intelligent physics engine. An intelligent physics engine is a system that can be used to produce realistic physical effecfts in real time. The result of an analysis of its ability to automatically select proper physics effects in a general game environment is also presented, along with a method of maximazing the excitement in a game with a minimum amount of calculation. A technique is proposed for intelligently ambodying the user’s expertise , and then evaluated by experiments with a racing car game. The study shows taht the intelligent physics engine should support an automatic acceleration mode controlled by the racing environment, collision detection model, and deceleration function by gravity.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Taehyun Kim & Dongil Shin & Dongkyoo Shin

PDF 8p

Languages : English

Automatically Adjusting Player Models for Given Stories in Role-Playing Games

Company Description : Different kinds of players favor different game stories. Player Archetype Change Management (PACM) system is a drama management system which changes the story of role playing games according to a player model monitored during gameplay. Authors give each of his stories a matching player model. While a player plays the game, PACM selects the story that most matches current player model. However, players may not agree with a model defined for a story by its author. Players’ opinions should be used to adjust the player model associated with each story. In this paper, we present the technique for adjusting the player model of each story in PACM using observed data from players. This provides the system with a more reliable player model for future playing sessions.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Natham Thammanichanon & Vishnu Kotrajaras

PDF 8p

Languages : English

Omni-directional Stereoscopic Fisheye Images for Immersive Hemispherical Dome Environments

Company Description : Virtual reality and gaming within a hemispherical dome provides an enhanced sense of immersion due to the engagement of the viewers peripheral vision. This sense of immersion would be enhanced further if depth perception was provided by engaging the viewers stereopsis capability. While this is well understood for flat displays, it is somewhat more challenging for a hemispherical display. In the following I discuss and derive the optical requirements for stereoscopic projection into hemispherical domes, this is applicable to both large scale domes (such as planetariums) and smaller personal domes. It is the development of the later smaller domes, referred to as the iDome, that employ a new lower cost projection system [1] that has been the motivation for this work. Primarily the discussion focuses on how to create optimal omni-directional stereoscopic fisheye pairs, that is, stereoscopic projections that are largely independent of the view direction (do not require head tracking) and the number of viewers.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Paul Bourke

PDF 8p

Languages : English

Raising Heart Rate with Dance Pad Based Computer Games

Company Description : Floor-positioned computer game controllers that require movement of large muscles are well known, most commonly in the form used in the rhythm-based game Dance Dance Revolution. Studies of the health benefits of such devices are often reported in the context of using the controller to play a particular game. In this paper we take a different approach, analyzing the controller as an exercise device in its own right, and using the findings to implement an appropriate game prototype. Trials show that the game increases the heart rate of the players to the level recommended for health and physical fitness.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Martin Masek, Philip Hingston, Matthew Carrigy, and Liam Collins

PDF 8p

Languages : English

3D Visualization and Animation of Crowd Simulation Using a Game Engine

Company Description : Crowd simulation is an essential component of military training and operations. In this paper, we present an approach for generating 3D visualizations and animations from simulation results in the area of agent-based crowd simulation for military operations. The main contribution is to create a simulation bridge between a federated agent-based crowd simulation architecture and a game engine to drive the visualization and animation of virtual crowd in a 3-dimentional space. In our simulation bridge framework, we present a method for data acquisition to create the virtual environment. An interfacing methodology is introduced between the 3D virtual environment maps and the federated agent-based crowd simulator. Our method comprises of converting the 3D maps to multi-level 2D maps to feed the 2D agent-based crowd simulator’s virtual world representation. A tool was implemented for defining objects in the virtual environment based on 2D maps and a color coder scheme. Our bridge framework makes use of a game engine as the visualization medium. The 3D virtual environment maps are reconstructed within the game engine and human avatars are created to simulate the agents. Motion, expression and behavioral animations are attached to each virtual agent. At run-time, data is fed from the 2D crowd simulator to our framework via an event-driven file buffer. Virtual agents are created at run-time based on the social aspects of the crowd composition. Behavioral animation is triggered on each agent based on the commands represented in the simulation results. Our framework also provides visualization of emergency situations and makes use of particle dynamics to generate more realistic visuals of disaster situations and human crowd behavior in an emergency situation.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Kabilen SORNUM, Yuanxi LIANG, Wentong CAI, Malcolm Yoke Hean LOW

PDF 8p

Languages : English

Heuristic-Based Learning in Abstraction Moving Target Search

Company Description : Abstraction Moving Target Search (MTS) was shown to exhibit competitive performance against other existing MTS algorithms even with large problem spaces [6]. However, the original design of the Abstraction MTS algorithm does not incorporate learning. Hence, its behaviour is deterministic and its performance is constant regardless of the number of times the simulation is repeated over the same problem space. In this paper, we investigate the incorporation of heuristic-based learning into Abstraction MTS to enhance its adaptiveness. In our new algorithm, Heuristic Abstraction MTS, we attempt to minimize the computational as well as information overheads that may be introduced when incorporating heuristic-based learning into the design. We conduct performance simulations with an agent and a moving target within randomly generated mazes of increasing sizes and reveal that the Heuristic Abstraction MTS outperforms the original Abstraction MTS.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Peter K. K. Loh & Rahul Bhasker & Edmond C. Prakash

PDF 8p

Languages : English

iDome: Immersive gaming with the Unity3D game engine

Company Description : In many games, notably first person shooters, the player inhabits a 3D virtual world similar to the user experience in a virtual reality application or training simulator. It is generally accepted that in such environments there is a heightened sense of immersion and engagement [1] if the player is surrounded by the virtual imagery, that is, the virtual world occupies their entire visual field. However traditional realtime graphics APIs only support parallel and perspective projections, whereas for immersive displays different projections are required. In the following I will discuss a particular immersive display environment based upon a hemispherical dome and present a method of creating the correct projections using the Unity game engine [2]. Design decisions will be presented along with a discussion of the performance and issues with the approach taken. The techniques discussed are general and appropriate to other game engines for which source code is available or, as in the case of Unity, the scripting language is powerful enough to implement the required mapping and geometry correction.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Paul Bourke

PDF 8p

Languages : English

Character Animation: Learning From Feature Film Techniques

Company Description : With ever increasing visual quality and details in computer games, expectations for character animation are also evolving. Simple movement cycles alone are not enough anymore to satisfy the gamers, and the increasing emphasis on storytelling in games demands better acted, crafted and more sophisticated animation of its characters. Good character animation is founded on 2 pillars. Firstly, body mechanics, which grounds the character in the imaginary games world’s physics and gives believability in the bodily presence therein. Secondly, character acting and character personality, which are important for the story and the user’s emotional attachment and empathy with the characters. Character design is another very important factor in the expression of character personality and acting. Design decisions such as hyperrealism or stylization for characters and environments influence the animation style and complexity. These choices in addition to the relationship between design and movement will be set in context with the concept of the uncanny valley. Concepts and techniques used in the creation of feature film quality animation will be discussed. The principles of animation will be related to body mechanics and acting, and how they are adapted in computer animation.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Melanie Beisswenger

PDF 6p

Languages : English

Surface Normal Data Compression Using XOR-based Prediction

Company Description : The well-known 3D mesh compression standards such as MPEG-4 3DMC provided a good compression gain of 3D mesh model. The standard compression technologies are highly efficient in compressing connectivity and geometry data. For other attributes like surface normals, the compression efficiency of the standard compression technologies is not as high as connectivity and geometry. This is because they do not exploit the characteristics of the individual attributes for further compression. Especially, surface normals are very hard to compress because it is hard to design an efficient prediction of the current normal from the previous (or neighboring) surface normals. In this paper, we proposed an efficient surface normal data compression method based on XOR operation. We found that the output values of XOR operation between the current and previous surface normals are highly correlated. And entropy coding of the output values of XOR operation yields the better compression gain than the existing methods. Experimental results showed that a compression gain between 19 to 38 percent is achieved using the proposed method.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Kyoungsoo Son, Daiyong Kim, Eun-Young Chang and Euee S. Jang

PDF 8p

Languages : English

New Texture Coordinate Representation Exploiting Texture Patch Formation

Company Description : In order to improve the realization and rendering efficiency of a 3D mesh model, patch-base textures are widely used in 3D applications. However, the huge description size of texture patches - which is utilized for mapping texture patches onto 3D mesh - accounts for a substantial amount of storage and transmission resources. The wellknown 3D mesh compression algorithms perform efficiently on connectivity and geometry data. In the mean time, less attention was given to texture coordinate compression. In this paper, we proposed an efficient representation method that can adaptively describe two common texture patch types: regular and non-regular patches. For textures with nonregular patch formation, we used a binary tree-like method in describing the connectivity between patches. For textures with regular patches, we proposed a new representation method by exploiting the regularity of texture patch shapes to describe a patch with one texture coordinate and a patch type (e.g., shape and orientation), not with three texture coordinates in the conventional representation. The proposed method is more compact than the conventional representation method (e.g., VRML), which leaves room for further compression of texture coordinate information. The experimental results showed that our algorithm produced a data reduction of 10 to 75 percent compared to the conventional representation method.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Ming-Xiao Chen & Euee S. Jang from Digital Media Lab Seung-Wook

PDF 8p

Languages : English

Efficient Connection Graph Generation for Waypoints in Virtual Environments

Company Description : In virtual environments, such as First Person Shooter (FPS), Role Playing Game (RPG) and Real-Time Strategy (RTS) computer games, pathfinding is used to determine a character’s path from a starting position to a goal position. It is common in this process to use waypoint representations instead of the raw map to reduce the computational and storage costs. Waypoints are usually created and connected manually by the game designer. Several research approaches to generate map representation in games exist but most of them focus on roadmap [10]. Visibility graph is commonly used to connect waypoints automatically, such as in [14]. However, because there are many paths originating from a waypoint, a pathfinding process between two waypoints will be time-consuming. In this paper, we address these issues by generating waypoints based on the map geometry and also proposing a technique to establish a more efficient connection graph with less number of connections to reduce the computational cost and storage overheads.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Nicholas Mario Wardhana & Henry Johan & Peter Kok Keong Loh & Ho

PDF 10p

Languages : English

Cheshire: Towards an Alice Based Game Development Tool

Company Description : This paper presents on-going research that aims to modify the open source 3D programming environment Alice in order to adapt it for use as a development tool for teaching game programming. The advantages and disadvantages of the current version of Alice for game development are described, along with an account of experiences using Alice for game development in the classroom. We set forth the changes that we plan to make to Alice and the challenges that we are facing.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Karen Villaverde & Inna Pivkina & Clint Jeffery

PDF 8p

Languages : English

Real-time Ship Motion Prediction System

Company Description : In this paper we present a real-time ship motion prediction system for simulating ship motion in a virtual environment. This system simulates ship motions in six degrees of freedom, pitch, heave, roll, surge, sway, and yaw. This system is simple and responds in real-time to interactions and it is based on a mathematical ship model. The mathematical model is derived from the famous linear first order Nomoto ship steering equation, linear sway equation, Newton’s laws, fluid dynamics and other basic physics. We use multivariable functions to model the ocean surface with superposition of sinusoid functions and the ship model requires fewer amounts of ship data and the mathematical ship model can be used with different types of existing ships.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Damitha Sandaruwan & Nihal Kodikara & Chamath Keppitiyagama & Re

PDF 8p

Languages : English

Real-time Character Motion Control Using Data Gloves

Company Description : For computer games, communications using avatars, and real-time animation systems, users want to move a character freely in a virtual world. However, the flexibility of the current motion control interface is very limited because currently character motion is simply controlled with pre-defined motion data. In this paper, we present a motion control method that uses two data gloves as an input device, making a virtual character perform various motions. Each part of the character’s body is controlled using input from data gloves. For example, a user can control the character’s left arm and left leg using their left hand. However, there are limited degrees of freedom using data gloves to control all the character’s body parts directly. Moreover, it is difficult for users to perform complex motions such as stepping or jumping because multiple body parts have to be controlled at the same time. In order to solve these problems, we introduce three novel ideas. First, we change the mapping between the user’s hand and the character’s body parts dynamically. For example, when the both hands are moving in the same direction, they are used to control the pelvis instead of arms or legs. Then, we introduce a manual switch between arms and legs. A hand is used for controlling the arms or the legs by switching the mode manually with a finger. Second, we use mechanisms of real puppets to control multiple body parts synchronously. Third, we combine the motion data based control with the position based control. When it is needed, a motion is selected from the pre-defined motion data, and is then executed. We use this approach for locomotive motion such as rightward step, leftward step, backward step, and jump. A motion is selected when the character’s waist is moved more than certain distance in a given direction. Using this approach, complex motions can be performed easily.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Nik Isrozaidi Nik Ismail, Katsuya Ishiguro and Masaki Oshita

PDF 8p

Languages : English

The Use of Narrative in the Prototyping of Serious Games for Criminal Investigation

Company Description : In this Paper we explore the potential use of narrative as a tool for delivering media that can support learning of work-related skills and information in a meaningful context. It is argued that the use of interactive videogames with narrative structures can provide a versatile platform through which a range of different perspectives, and therefore training, can be experienced. The example of crime scene investigation is used to demonstrate the ways in which narrative structures can benefit the player/trainee by allowing them to participate from various perspectives, such as criminal and investigator, within a single context. Some potential techniques are discussed which may help realise this in the future, which initially involve the development of small-scale prototypes in order to assess the training potential of a game’s design.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Daniel Andrews & Chris Baber

PDF 8p

Languages : English

Automatic Level Difficulty Adjustment in Platform Games Using Genetic Algorithm Based Methodlogy

Company Description : In platform games, enemy behavior is not complicated. Therefore, challenges in such games come from the right mixture between enemies and environments of each level. Platform games require manual testing for tuning the game balance for mass audience. This is very time consuming. In addition, the difficulty of each level obtained is not guaranteed to suit individuals. Very few researches tackle how balanced levels can be generated automatically for individuals. This paper proposes a new methodology for using artificial intelligence to adjust games difficulty to suit players by automatically generating levels in platform games. The method is inspired by genetic algorithm. It is much easier to implement compared to an existing reinforcement learning based method, while still maintains similar gameplay quality. The new methodology also consumes less memory.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Nirach Watcharasatharpornpong & Vishnu Kotrajaras

PDF 8p

Languages : English

Shaspa - Intelligent Shared Spaces Buildings Worlds Witouht Boundaries

Company Description : Technology developments in electronic games, virtual worlds and social network applications are increasingly being applied to serious social and economic issues and are breaking down the barriers between physical and virtual environments SHASPA is an innovative platform and set of services that a blend of emerging technologies such as wireless sensors, social networks, virtual worlds and electronic games can plug into to create applications which integrate, visualise, monitor and manage the physical and virtual environment. Today’s technologies in 3D immersive environments enable us to better visualise and understand the world around us and the SHASPA platform provides creative developers working on the integration of physical and virtual worlds to develop and share new applications which foster better energy management, greater understanding of physical processes and the creation of intelligent shared spaces capable of delivering high value services to individuals working in those spaces. This paper describes the SHASPA platform and the range of applications being developed which bring the power of games, virtual worlds and social networks to the physical environment.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : David John Wortley

PDF 5p

Languages : English

Operative Series (OpS): a platform independent carrier mechanism for game accessibility and AI

Company Description : The concept of Operative Series (OpS) was developed as a carrier mechanism for game accessibility and AI in our award-winning 3D game Terraformers. The problem we are investigating is the possibility to isolate and identify abstract operative patterns from a given algorithmic setting, embedded with fixed control-flow structures and hard wired call-maps. From the viewpoint of a computer game scenario, you need just in time solutions for context-based situations, which need to be generated on the fly. Further, it needs to be distributed in a way that makes decision process logic available to a set of various game objects. This is often solved with complex AI frameworks where truly platform independent scheduling and serialization is difficult to achieve. The result is a code library for OpS, which has proven to work in a commercial 3D game, comprising a sequencer mechanism and a modular data structure. By virtue of a modular data form, the OpS makes of procedural logic an entity, which can be communicated across address space boundaries. This makes OpS the perfect vehicle for carrying AI solutions and offer the means to form program constructs amenable to serialization and scheduling. The conclusion is that the OpS provides a solution to the problem with an easy to implement approach, which is platform independent, and is also well suited to be used in conjunction with Object Oriented Programming (OOP).

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Thomas Westin & Stig Nordeson

PDF 6p

Languages : English

Case Study: an Artist’s Residency within a Singaporean Gaming Company

Company Description : Ksatria Gameworks are a Singaporean game developer whose first project is based on the classic game book series ‘Lone Wolf’ by Joe Dever. From 22nd Dec 2006 to 30th April 2008 the artist Jack Youngblood was their artist in residence. Jack Youngblood is a digital painter with an interest in popular culture and digital technologies. The Digital Print ‘Hope is the Kingmaker’ (fig. 1) was one of the key pieces in the resultant body of work. It was a complex and large (1m X 2m) composite that drew heavily on a broad range of material sourced from many places. It was the artist’s intention to produce a piece of work that was both thematically and visually excessive. The piece referenced both high and low cultural imagery and themes such as vampires, zombies, spacemen, life, death and consciousness. This paper shall outline these influences and shall place them within the context of the gaming theme. ‘Hope is the Kingmaker’ shall also be examined in terms of the technical specifics of its manufacture and the history of its development.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Asst. Prof. Martin Constable

PDF 13p

Languages : English

Driver Behaviour Analysis in a Simulated Environment

Company Description : Building a navigation system within a 3-dimensional virtual computer world is challenging. Further, building our navigable virtual world corresponding to real world facts (such as a map or a landscape of a given area) magnifies this challenge. This research investigates on possibilities of modeling a 3D navigable world corresponding to real world facts via mathematical constructs derived using the provided information of a given area. Thereafter, this realism augmented 3D navigation system is transformed into a 3D virtual driving simulator. Our driving simulator is used as a tool for measuring driver behaviour under different types of varied conditions. The final output of this simulator after a single driving session is a sample data set indicating predefined metrics; those can be used to state observations for a typical human factors experiment. Hence the observations after a driving session in a simulated environment are used to derive useful inferences with respect to real driving. The metrics include; number of wall collisions, number of traffic cone collisions, time taken per driving session and speed detected during different times (can be used to obtain a speed graph later). The sample human factors experiment tested on our driving simulator is about inferring the relationship between driver behaviour vs. consumption of alcohol, which is simplified to driver behaviour vs. drowsiness for the sake of demonstration.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Wimal Perera & Prasad Wimalaratne

PDF 9p

Languages : English

Sentiment Recognition by Rule Extraction from Support Vector Machines

Company Description : Affective computation allows machines to express and recognize emotions, a core component of computer games. A natural way to express emotion is language, through text and speech; computational methods that accurately recognize emotion in text and speech are therefore important. Machine learning techniques such as support vector machines (SVMs) have been used successfully for topic detection in documents and speech as well as for the identification of authors/speakers. SVMs have also been used for emotion detection in written and spoken communication, although with mixed success. An impediment to emotion extraction by use of support vector machines is that, after learning, it is not quite clear what has been learned. For instance, a gamer may acoustically respond to a character with fear and the SVMs that observe user behaviour confuse the sentiment (fear) with the character (e.g. an in-game persona). Successful emotion identification by support vector machines requires methods that ensure the recognition of sentiments without any confusion with certain topics or characters. This paper provides an introduction to affective computation and rule extraction from support vector machines, a set of techniques used for emotion recognition in text.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Joachim Diederich & Denise Dillon

PDF 8p

Languages : English

Virtual Hair Simulation: A Performance Analysis Based on Geometric Representations

Company Description : Hair modeling in its naturalistic beauty and inter-activeness is a fundamental part of virtual humans in computer graphics. Hair simulation can be thought of as three separate problems which is a modeling problem, an animation problem and a rendering problem. Because of the difficult and often unresolved problems which arise in these areas, broad ranges of novel approaches are used to counter the simulation problem. Most of these methods focuses on the algorithmic complexity and keeps aside the geometric complexity by considering it as a constant. A single hair strand can have vivid geometric representations ranging from two dimensional quad strips to complex three dimensional structures. To analyze the effect of each geometric representation on the overall simulation, a performance analysis was carried out using the mass spring and damper model and Euler dynamics. Out of the three geometric representations used to represent a single strand of hair it was eminent that certain geometric primitives such as spheres affect the overall performance considerably when compared to constructs such as quad strips or cylinders. The above mentioned performance analysis that we present emphasizes the importance of geometric complexity.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Manjusri Wickramasinghe & Prasad Wimalaratne

PDF 7p

Languages : English

The Colour Variables of Visual Unrealisms in Computer Games

Company Description : Visual unrealisms (VUs) are devices employed to overcome the limitations imposed by the rules of realism that govern a particular representation of a reality when attempting to visualise abstract concepts such as health. VUs are reliant on deliberate distortion to the representational norms of the reality and in order to provide a language with which to discuss the visual characteristics of visual unrealisms a classification of the variables of visual unrealisms has been developed. This resulted in the proposition that visual representations, and thus visual unrealisms, can be viewed as the outcome of the relationship between the choice of and syntagmatic organisation of colour. This enables not only the identification of the constituent parts of a visual representation of a game world but also the articulation of the relative levels of distortion applied and the methods of manipulation. It is proposed that this will be of benefit in the effective design and analysis of computer games.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Philip McClenaghan & Clive Fencott & Paul van Schaik

PDF 8p

Languages : English

Benefiting from Computer Games in Learning Science from Teachers’ Perspective: Is It Possible?

Company Description : Computer games are very popular among children, teenager as well as adults and could be easily accessed anytime and anywhere with the widespread availability of computer in Malaysia. We believe with the exposure and popularity, computer games could be exploited as another medium for teaching and learning in Malaysian schools. Therefore, we intended to investigate the possibilities of exploring the idea of adapting computer games specifically for Science teaching and learning in class. For that matter, we need to understand whether computer games could be incorporated as another pedagogy instrument in class and how could teachers benefit from computer games. 9 computer games were evaluated by 341 public school students and 24 teachers across Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia and the results showed that each individual computer games has its own pros and cons. The results from this study focused on identifying which and recognizing how each computer game was able to assist the teachers during the class session. Generally, teachers were positive with the idea of incorporating computer games as another pedagogy tool especially for Science.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Rubijesmin Abdul Latif & Judithe Sheard

PDF 9p

Languages : English

The Educational Value of Metaphorical FPS Games

Company Description : The creation of Metaphorical FPS games and the testing of them have helped us to find the improvements required in the development of tools for low-end Educational Serious Games. In the Metaphorical FPS game we are using the same well-known and accepted basic game features from an FPS game as symbols and metaphors of things in a real teaching lesson and the rules of the game are changed to correspond with the real-world system of the learning concept. From the results of the surveys done on two Metaphorical FPS games we believe that it is essential to build the introductory module which will give the necessary instructions to the player to understand the game objectives, the facilities provided and the obstacles in the game. We also found it necessary to build the in-game tutor module which will provide help to the player and constant feedback of the actions that he is accomplishing while playing. Both modules can be constructed as tools required for the development of low-end Educational Serious Games. These and other improvements for constructing Metaphorical FPS games are in accordance with principles from Cognitive Load Theory.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Dr. John R. Rankin & Sandra Sampayo Vargas

PDF 7p

Languages : English

Video Games Design and Development: The challenges of relevance and delivery against an ...

Company Description : As the games industry itself has grown and matured into a global business, the demand for talented development staff has seen a corresponding proliferation of new higher education courses and programmes. Unfortunately, these have not met with universal acclaim from the industry. This sense of reservation reflects in part the harsh reality that academic courses are not required in order to work within the industry, nor are they even necessary to gain the knowledge or skills required to produce games themselves. It follows that in many cases this newfound academic support for the games industry does not stem from a professionally driven necessity, but rather from a perceived student recruitment opportunity. The consequences of this are manifest, demanding solutions and pedagogical models which do not necessarily conform to the traditional norm. However, the problem does not lie with Academia alone, but also with the expectations and inherent abilities of students applying to these courses. Just as the industry does not require qualifications of their potential employees, the students on these courses cannot rely on the conferment of the degree alone to prove their worth. In game development degrees it is the collaborative multidisciplinary learning opportunities, live project development experience and networking exposure throughout the entire duration of the course or programme that provide the educational value and advantage in higher education enrolment. In 2006, after some 25 published titles and roles in such franchises such as Lemmings, Grand Theft Auto, Medal of Honor, Harry Potter and Star Trek, I joined the University of Abertay Dundee as Programme Tutor in Game Design and Production Management. In this paper I will discuss the challenges that my team and I faced in translating genuine industrial practices into the Higher education pedagogical model, the solutions we derived, and the challenges that lie ahead.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Ken Fee

PDF 9p

Languages : English

JeuxDeMots and PtiClic: games for vocabulary assessment and lexical acquisition

Company Description : In this Paper we describe two games JeuxDeMots and PtiClic which aims at collecting lexical relations between words. We describe the principle of theses games and present the quantitative and qualitative results on the lexical networks.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Lafourcade Mathieu & Zampa Virginie

PDF 8p

Languages : English

A Study on Project Based Learning Approach for Motion Graphics Visualization

Company Description : This study attempts to identify visualisation techniques used by First Year Film and Animation students to visualise motion graphics animation. It reports the pedagogy used in teaching the visualisation process of motion graphics animation. The curriculum has been designed using the project based learning approach, where the outcome of the project was explained to the students in the beginning of the trimester. Within a time period of eight weeks, students went through lectures, lab lessons, workshops and video showcases to prepare them for the project. Students were required to display their processes through 2 assignments and using the scrapbook in documenting their process of ideation through to the final visualization. This paper evaluates the Motion Graphics course, a course centered on project-based learning incorporating the development of students’ soft skills as well as technical or professional competences. The research aimed to identify to what extent ProjBL helped in achieving the identified learning outcomes and to identify potential areas for improvement for Motion graphics visualisation.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Nekhat Sultana binti Tarique Azam & Yuen, May Chan

PDF 9p

Languages : English

Wissenheim Worlds – a Massively Multi-User Environment Focused on E-Action-Learning

Company Description : The “Wissenheim1 Worlds” project provides an interactive virtual 3D world initially designed to host educational material for computer science students. All participants are represented as avatars and perceive a rich multimedia experience. This includes animated lecture material, interactive content, meeting opportunities, games and fun. The current aim of the project is to present the often very complex content of the computer science lecture in a playful, interactive and self-explanatory way. An important focus of the project is therefore to let the avatars interact with educational 3D objects (“eaction learning”). As a prototype for a virtual 3D e-action-learning environment “Wissenheim Worlds” demonstrates how to present highly-dynamic content for a multi-user community.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Tobias Bäuerle & Alexander Weggerle & Peter Schulthess & Michael

PDF 8p

Languages : English

Honesty in Meta-gaming

Company Description : Will my free-kick swerve down as much if I also try to swerve it to the side? Am I prohibited from moving into this different map area because of engine limitations, overly-linear story-telling, or simply because the developer ran out of time? What happens if I kill this NPC? Modern game players have adapted to play the game as designed, and the meta-game of exploring the game's rule system, with equal ease. For some games the meta-game is the primary attraction, yet very little effort is put into sharing its details with players. Even games without an obvious meta-component reveal one after some time in player hands. I propose that making meta-game components of a game visible can engage players, causing them to spend more time with the game, increasing its life-span and deepening their understanding of its tactics and control systems.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Paul Dempster

PDF 6p

Languages : English

Virtual Hair Attachment: A Novel Approach

Company Description : The hair modeling problem consists of three major parts known as the hair generation, attachment and finer property handling. When we exclusively consider hair attachment techniques we can observe that most of the hair simulations’ naturalism can be adjusted by the attachment technique used. But most of the techniques available today lack the ability to perceive the natural phenomenon of hair attachment which to grow from inside. This paper proposes a novel approach to virtual hair attachment by using a more natural approach like making the hair strand originate from inside the human head. This technique can be regarded as a pioneer in hybrid hair shape modeling techniques as this addresses both the shape modeling and the attachment problem.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Manjusri Wickramasinghe & Prasad Wimalaratne

PDF 6p

Languages : English

Visual Authoring Tool for Creating Visual Novel Games

Company Description : The paper proposes a visual authoring tool for a developing Visual Novel games. Visual Novels are games that work like reading a novel. Visual Novels are very popular in Japan, where they make up nearly 70% of PC games released. However, due to its heavy contents of erotic things and sex scenes, this type of games are less acceptable in other regions. Despite its popularity, not many tools or engines are available to help visual novel creators to easily develop these games. The implemented prototype is developed using Java Swing. Basically, the program has two main components, the visual authoring interface and the compiler. The visual interface lets the users to specify the flow of the story and compose words, pictures, as well as sounds to tell stories. Having finished the composition, the users can compile it to a Java class simply by pressing a button, that can then run independently outside the authoring tool itself. Unlike other Visual Novels authoring tools that require users to write a script to specify the novels, the proposed tool provides a graphical interface to compose the novels. This visual approach frees the users from learning the scripting which normally is a an obstacle for non-technical users. It also facilitates the settings of users' involvement level in the composed novel that allows the creator of this novels to adjust how much engagement of the users is expected in the finished novels. A simple test on the users shows that this visual authoring interface can help non-technical users to develop a visual novel relatively easily. Moreover, since it uses Java Swing , the tool is ensured to work crossplatform.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Kristian Wijaya & Tri A. Budiono

PDF 16p

Languages : English

Agent-Based Simulation for Infrastructure Protection and Emergency Evacuation Training

Company Description : Simulators have been used for some time to provide training to people in a number of occupations. Simulation systems enable what-if questions to be posed and the consequences of user actions to be studied in a cost-effective and safe manner. Simulations also enable detailed user behavior to be logged for later study to extract data that may be difficult to capture in real life. This paper describes the development of a multi-user simulation platform that enables certain emergency events to be simulated. All user behavior is logged for later analysis so that user behavior under certain stressful events can be studied. Software agents in the simulation system can be used to model crowds or agents with a particular intent. The system can be used to provide emergency evacuation training. The system can also be used to test the security of building designs to find out how the security of these buildings can be compromised.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Shri Rai & Kevin Wong

PDF 8p

Languages : English

Deriving Displacement from a 3 axis Accelerometer

Company Description : This paper describes a formal approach to derive displacement from a 3 axis accelerometer. It forms part of a larger research aspiration striving to afford computer users, including gamers, full physical immersion into 3D environments utilising affordable and practical motion sensor technologies. To derive displacement from the accelerometer a motion sensing device was built utilising a standard Windows PC compatible gamepad and software device driver. The accelerometer replaced the gamepad’s analogue joysticks and was mounted in a black box small enough to be held in the hand. A software application was written that collected data, in real time, from the motion sensing device. A series of experiments were performed, the data captured and analysed. It was observed that specific motion characteristics correlated with oscillations in the data. A hypothesis was formed and the focus of this paper is on data analysis with a view to test the hypothesis.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Mr. Andrew Blake & Dr. Graham Winstanley & Dr. William Wilkinson

PDF 6p

Languages : English

Skill-mirroring control systems

Company Description : Most current input systems for games rely on mechanistic iconographic based interactions such as an "attack" button, in hardware or software, which encompasses the whole sequence of preparation, timing, execution, and recovery from the action. The few systems which differ mostly involve hardware analogues of physical equipment and movements. These often capture the movement of the real action but not the primary skill required; capturing secondary skills are almost never even attempted. I propose a series of software-based approaches which capture primary and secondary skills required to mirror a player's character’s abilities in the player themselves. For example in the role-playing games, if the player has the skills a designer thinks a wizard or warrior would have, the player’s character will be better at that class. Comparisons with existing popular systems are made and the implications of this system for cheating, bots, leveling, class selection and experience levels are discussed.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Paul Dempster

PDF 7p

Languages : English

The Asian Mule in Cyberspace: Building Game Controllers from Locally Appropriate Materials

Company Description : Over the last twenty-five years small 100-125cc motorcycles have become the “mule of Asia” – a common mode of transportation for both passengers and goods. This paper describes a number of novel and distinctly Asian game input devices for playing a futuristic motorcycle computer game that takes the mule of Asia into cyberspace. The controllers are constructed from cheap, readily available, local materials and in addition to their functionality the design and choice of these materials is presented as a commentary on many aspects of life in modern South-East Asia.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Thomas Tilley

PDF 8p

Languages : English

Realtime 3D in Game Engines: Rendering, Animation & Interaction

Company Description : In this paper we first describe some of the new and attractive features available in the id Tech 5 game engine and the EPIC Unreal Engine 3. There is an increasing demand for the simulation of large-scale "free-flow" environments in game development and in the virtual reality world. Currently most 3D environments are generated by using time consuming manually pre-scripting “room-to-room” approaches. We intend to address the problem using fractal modeling and automatic computer algorithms. In particular, we will investigate how fractal theory can be used to mathematically generate the multi-layer urban structure and hierarchy with regard to associated probability densities of various properties of the city. In the final part, we present heuristics employed for the design and development of an XNA based game.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Edmond Prakash, Jonathan Rushworth, Baihua Li, James Miller, Mik

PDF 12p

Languages : English

The Music and Emotion Driven Game Engine: Ideas and Games

Company Description : In this paper we describe the ideas behind the Music and Emotion Driven Game Engine (M-EDGE), currently under development at the School of Interactive and Digital Media in Nanyang Polytechnic and fully supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation. The paper will explain a possible method for analyzing emotional content in music in real time and how it can successfully be applied to different game ideas to help defining a new interactive experience and music based gameplay in videogames.

Product Type : Academic Conferences

Author : Roberto Dillon, Ng Kian Bee and Simon Rozner

PDF 9p

Languages : English

Organizer : Global Science & Technology Forum

GSTF provides a global intellectual platform for top notch academics and industry professionals to actively interact and share their groundbreaking research achievements. GSTF is dedicated to promoting research and development and offers an inter-disciplinary intellectual platform for leading scientists, researchers, academics and industry professionals across Asia Pacific to actively consult, network and collaborate with their counterparts across the globe.