By : Knowledge Foundation
Date : 2006
Location : United States US / Arlington
The Fuel Cells Durability 2nd Edition conference focuses on the fundamental factors affecting Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEM FC) performance, components/stacks/system durability, cost, and implementation.
Hydrogen Fuel, Membrane Electrode Assembly, fluoride emission rate, Gas Diffusion Layers, Electrocatalysts, Fuel Cell Test Facility, Proton-exchange membrane fuel cell
This book (435 pages) provides an interdisciplinary review of the fundamental factors affecting Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEM FC) performance, components/stacks/system durability, cost, and implementation. The book emphasizes the latest efforts towards overcoming technical and engineering barriers to commercialization of stationary, automotive and portable PEM FC and related hydrogen infrastructure technologies. Areas addressed include:
- MEAs and Membranes: Development, Degradation and Testing
- PEM FC under Extreme Conditions: Cold Climate, Freeze Start, Mechanical Vibrations, Contaminated Feed
- Durability, Degradation and Testing of Components/Stacks/Systems
- Development and Durability/Degradation of PEM FC Electrocatalysts
Includes a PDF file with the 22 presentations and speeches given at the Annual Conference Fuel Cells Durability 2nd Edition series
Includes a PDF file (435pages) with the 22 presentations and speeches given at the Annual Conference of the Knowledge Foundation's Fuel Cells Durability 2nd Edition series
The President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative: Improving Durability
Nancy Garland, PhD, Technology Development Manager, Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy
The DOE Hydrogen Program works to overcome technical barriers of fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen infrastructure technologies. Significant technical challenges in fuel cell technology include cost and durability. In 2006, the Hydrogen Program initiated new RD&D efforts aimed at tackling DOE 2010 technical targets such as 5000 hours durability with cycling for 80-kWe (net) integrated transportation fuel cell power systems. These new efforts will be discussed.
Fuel Cell Manufacturing Costs: Trends and Cost Reduction Strategies
Ski Milburn, CEO & CTO, VAIREX Corporation
For PEM fuel cell technology to be successful in the market place, it must be competitive in several key metrics, including performance, life, durability, and cost. This presentation will address the key cost drivers of PEMFC stacks including material and process contributions and stack performance. As the cost of stacks decrease, balance-of-plant components will contribute a larger percentage to overall system cost. The interactions between stack materials, operating condition requirements, and balance-of-plant components will be discussed with regard to system cost and complexity.
Designing for Durability and Performance in Extreme Environments: Contaminated Feeds and Mechanical Vibrations
Bruce J. Tatarchuk, PhD, Professor, Dept of Chemical Engineering, Center for Microfibrous Materials Manufacturing, Auburn University
Environmental factors strongly affect the performance, power density, life cycle cost and overall efficacy of fuel cell integrated power systems. Two specific factors will be presented in this talk, (i) the influence of contaminated feeds and methodologies to mitigate these influences at both the anode as well as the cathode, and (ii) the influence of vibration and shock from the catastrophic event to the normally anticipated operating environment.
Durability Issues for Advanced, Low Precious Metal MEAs
Emory S. De Castro, PhD, Executive Vice President, E-TEK Division, PEMEAS Fuel Cell Technologies
Through support from the Department of Energy, E-TEK developed ion beam assisted deposition methods to create MEAs for the PEM market. We have achieved total precious metal loadings of under 0.2 mg/cm2 platinum, and demonstrated moderate success toward achieving the 2010 automotive specific power goals (g Pt/kW). In developing materials with ultra-low platinum loading, several issues arise for durability. We will discuss the results and analysis of durability testing on these low loaded structures, as well as general results on developing MEA components to meet long term operation.
Realizing Automotive Stack Needs through MEA Development
Kev Adjemian, PhD, Manager, Fuel Cell Laboratory, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
The most significant factor governing automotive fuel cell stack performance and durability is the MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly). Nissan Motor Company's approach has been to attack each component of the MEA separately and then to further improve the assembly itself. This has been accomplished by understanding and mitigating the basic failure mechanisms of the membrane, the platinum catalyst, the carbon support and overall MEA design. Using this strategy, major steps towards FC commercialization are being realized.
Membrane Degradation Mechanisms in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells
Vishal O. Mittal, PhD, Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida
Membrane degradation mechanisms in PEMFCs were studied using an in-situ and nondestructive technique, which relies on the measurement of the membrane degradation rate in a fuel cell. Degradation of Nafion membranes were studied and the fluoride emission rate (FER) as measured from the fuel cell effluent water analysis was used as a quantitative indicator of the membrane degradation rate. The degradation mechanisms as proposed in the literature and the ones hypothesized from the experimental findings will be discussed.
Accelerated Evaluation of Membrane Degradation and Degradation Mechanisms
Doanh Tran, Manager, Advanced Vehicle Engineering, Fuel Cell Systems Group, DaimlerChrysler
The lifetime of PEM fuel cells is limited by chemical degradation of the membrane due to hydrogen peroxide induced radical attack [A.B. LaConti, Handbook of Fuel Cells, V.3, 2003]. A novel accelerated ex-situ test is presented to quickly asses the lifetime of a membrane. The set up mimics radical attack (O2H, OH-radicals) under conditions which are relevant for automotive fuel cells. Based on results from different types of membranes degradation mechanisms are discussed as well as possibilities to avoid radical attack or formation.
Fuel Cells in Cold Climate
Joakim Nordlund, PhD, Co-Founder, Cellkraft AB, Sweden
The presentation will include data and results from Cellkraft's on-going work developing fuel cells for cold climate applications. Results will be shown from both field testing and laboratory results, including thermal cycling and cold start of fuel cells from -30C.
Accelerated Testing Methodology of Fuel Cell Stacks
Olga Polevaya, Manager of Applied Research, Nuvera North America
Accelerated testing methodologies were developed to project fuel cell stack lifetime and detect early failure modes. While accelerated testing of fuel cell components is often conducted in the off-fuel cell operating conditions i.e. chemical solutions, humidity cycling or half-cell potential cycling, the stacks assembled with the same components may undergo different aging routines. Multiple cells of full active area 500cm2 were assembled into Nuvera XDS900 type short fuel cell stacks to accumulate statistical data. Different load cycles imitating real field scenarios were studied including but not limited to start-up and shutdown, potential reduction, OCV, hydrogen or air starvation etc. Cell voltage decays and cell voltage decay progress were derived from accelerated tests concluding accelerated factors and characteristic timing for stabilization of aging process. Decrease of the catalyst active area was found accelerated in the proposed methods comparing to the steady state operation. Membrane failures due to developing hydrogen crossover were detected earlier in the selected accelerated tests rather than in steady state operation and attributed to the lack of mechanical rather than chemical stability.
Durability and Degradation Mechanisms of PEM Fuel Cell Components
Rod Borup, PhD, Team Leader, Institute for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Research, Los Alamos National Laboratory
PEM fuel cell durability testing is performed with tests being conducted with steady-state conditions (both constant voltage and constant current), with dynamic conditions using power cycling to simulate a vehicle drive cycle and use of accelerated testing methods. The long-term performance characteristics of MEAs, Electrocatalysts and Gas Diffusion Layers (GDL) and their impact on PEMFC operating durability are evaluated in terms of their associated degradation mechanisms.
Fuel Cell Durability Testing at the Argonne Fuel Cell Test Facility
Ira D. Bloom, PhD, Manager, Electrochemical Analysis & Diagnostics Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory
The Fuel Cell Test Facility (FCTF) conducts standardized, independent performance evaluations of fuel cell hardware. Such testing can provide insights into the factors that limit fuel cell performance and durability. The FCTF is designed to run tests representative of the automotive application; the load profiles can emulate standardized driving schedules, as well as arbitrary power versus time tests. Sample results from such tests will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy, Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure, under Contract No. W-31-109-Eng-38.
Fundamental Issues of PEM Fuel Cell Durability and Performance
Zhigang Qi, PhD, Fellow, Plug Power, Inc.
When a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell fails, it is normally due to either the membrane breach or due to the catalyst activity loss. These failures are usually related in part to the membrane and the catalyst themselves; in part to the other components of the fuel cell system; and in part to the whole fuel cell system and to conditions of its operation. This presentation will discuss key challenges facing PEM fuel cells, the underlining reasons, and efforts towards overcoming these challenges. In addition, it will illustrate several specific methodologies that have been proven to be effective in enhancing fuel cell performance and durability.
Durability of Advanced Metallic Fuel Cell Stacks in Automotive Applications
Ales Horky, Process Test Engineer, Nuvera Fuel Cells
Operating stability and long life are essential requirements to enable the commercialization of fuel cell technology, and are being pursued vigorously by component, stack, and system developers. The US DoE has set durability targets that are informed by the demands of the intended markets (both stationary and automotive), and which serve as an important reference for the industry - the expectation and need is that durability and all other requirements be met simultaneously in a single embodiment. This is extremely challenging, above all for automotive applications where continuous process parameter variation and extreme changes in environmental conditions both can have strong impacts on the integrity and operational stability of the FC materials. Disciplined material selection, detailed engineering of cell and stack designs, and enforcement of optimized operating protocols are all essential. This paper describes highlights of Nuvera's automotive stack qualification and durability testing campaign, including running in different process conditions, from extended steady state operation to partial and/or continuous load cycling, including on-off and cold start up, giving insight into the complete spectrum of scenarios expected in the actual vehicle life cycle.
Development of High-Performance Nanostructured Materials for Fuel Cells
Chikashi Nishimura, PhD, Director, Fuel Cell Materials Center; Group Leader, Hydrogen Purification Materials Group, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS)
At NIMS, so far, we have developed high-performance materials by controlling microstructures and nanostructures, including nanostructure controlled doped-CeO2 solid electrolyte, V-based hydrogen separation membranes, Ni3Al catalytic foils for fuel reforming and corrosion resistant high nitrogen stainless steels. Here, we will challenge to develop key materials for fuel cells, operated at intermediate temperatures, and for efficient and inexpensive hydrogen production, matching today's needs for fuel cells.
Modeling Pt Loss in PEM Fuel Cell Cathodes
Dane Morgan, PhD, Assistant Professor, University of Wisconsin - Madison
The effective active surface area of Pt is reduced over time in PEM fuel cell cathodes, causing degradation of performance. We use electrochemical simulations to understand this process and how it might depend on such parameters as hydrogen crossover rates, voltage cycling, and particle size distribution. A key issue is the balance between coarsening of particles and dissolution of Pt into the ionomer.
Electro Energy's Entry into Commercial Lithium Ion Batteries
Michael E. Reed, President and CEO, Electro Energy, Inc.
Lithium ion battery technology has emerged as the dominant energy storage choice for mobile applications. Electro Energy has acquired significant manufacturing assets in Gainesville, Florida to establish a position as a domestic supplier of lithium ion cylindrical cells and its proprietary bipolar wafer cells. Further developments in materials and safety will enable expanded use in large format applications. Electro Energy plans to participate in this development and commercialization.
Saphion Technology Solutions for Lithium Ion Type Applications
James R. Akridge, PhD, President and CEO, Valence Technology, Inc.
Valence Technology, Inc. (NASDAQ: VLNC) is a commercial supplier of battery modules, battery management systems and fuel gauges for large and medium format packs for applications in motive, backup, remote and standby power needs employing Valence's phosphate based Saphion technology. Valence has proprietary technology in both vanadium and iron based phosphate chemistry. Discussion will focus on the characteristics of phosphate based cathode technology and its application in the commercial space that bring solutions encompassing applications that require safety, excellent shelf life, power delivery, and long cycle life.
PANEL DISCUSSION: Lithium Batteries and Fuel Cells Technologies: Different Problems - Common Solutions
Facilitator: M. Stanley Whittingham, PhD, Professor and Director, Institute for Materials Research, SUNY at Binghamton
Panelists: K.M. Abraham, E-KEM Sciences, James R. Akridge, Valence Technology, Inc., Michel Broussely, SAFT Batteries, Zhigang Qi, Plug Power, Inc.
Features and Comparison of Medium to High Temperature Fuel Cells across the Types and Applications
Zhigang Qi, PhD, Fellow, Plug Power, Inc.
Proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is regarded as a low temperature fuel cell because it typically operates at a temperature lower than 100ï¿½C. Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) fuel cell (PAFC) can operate at temperatures up to 220ï¿½C, and is a medium temperature fuel cell. Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) has an optimal operating temperature of 650ï¿½C, while solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) runs at up to 1000ï¿½C, and they are called high temperature fuel cells. Due to the vast difference in the operating temperatures, the medium to high temperature fuel cells differ from the PEMFC significantly. This work shop presentation will outline the fundamental principles, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) and plates, advantages and disadvantages, technical challenges, and system architectures of medium to high temperature fuel cells. Comparison will be made among PAFCs, MCFCs and SOFCs, and to PEMFCs.
Advancements in Chemical Hydride-Based Fuel Cell Systems for Portable Applications
Mohammad Enayetullah, PhD, Vice President, Advanced Technology, Protonex Technology Corporation
Chemical hydrides show great promise for portable, on-demand hydrogen generation. PEM fuel cell systems integrated with chemical hydride fueling subsystems are able to meet aggressive performance targets, including requirements for high energy density and durability. Programs currently underway at Protonex are focused on developing fully integrated power solutions fueled by chemical hydrides for solider power, unmanned systems and portable power generation.
The Impact of Air Systems Efficiency on The PEM FC Stack, Its Sizing and Its Costs
Ski Milburn, CEO & CTO, VAIREX Corporation
PANEL DISCUSSION: PEM Fuel Cell Commercialization: Opportunities & Challenges
Facilitator: James C. Cross III, Vice President of Technology, Nuvera Fuel Cells
Panelists: Simon J.C. Cleghorn, W.L.Gore & Associates, Inc., Nancy Garland, U.S. Department of Energy, Christopher Hebling, Fraunhofer ISE, Ski Milburn, VAIREX Corp., Sathya Motupally, UTC Fuel Cells
Company Description : Includes a PDF files with the 22 presentations and speeches given at the Annual Conference of the Knowledge Foundation's Fuel Cells Durability 2nd Edition series
Organizer : Knowledge FoundationServing the scientific community for over 10 years, the Knowledge Foundation and the Knowledge Press strive to be your primary source of information for the commercialization of advanced technologies.